December 1, 2015

2092 Struve Geodetic Arc (UNESCO WHS)

The Struve Geodetic Arc is a chain of survey triangulations stretching from Hammerfest in Norway to the Black Sea, through ten countries and over 2,820 km, which yielded the first accurate measurement of a meridian. It was established and used by the German-born Russian scientist Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve (1793-1864) in the years 1816 to 1855 to establish the exact size and shape of the earth. At that time, the chain passed merely through two countries: Union of Sweden-Norway and the Russian Empire.

Because It is an extraordinary example of scientific collaboration among scientists from different countries, and of collaboration between monarchs for a scientific cause, the chain was inscribed in 2005 on the World Heritage List as a memorable ensemble of the chain made up of 34 commemorative plaques or built obelisks out of the original 265 main station points. The Arc's first point is located in Tartu Observatory in Estonia, where Struve conducted much of his research.

The Struve column depicted in the postcard is situated 1 km from Simuna, on the side of the road in the direction of Laekvere. It is a stone monument which stands 1.2m high. In 1827 Struve measured a 4.5km long base line on flat ground near Simuna, one end of which was where the column now stands, and the other near the Võivere windmill.

• Hammerfest (Finnmark County) - Fuglenes
• Alta (Finnmark County) - Raipas
• Kautokeino (Finnmark County) - Luvdiidcohkka
• Kautokeino (Finnmark County) - Baelljasvarri

• Kiruna (Lapland Province) - Pajtas-vaara
• Pajala (Norrbotten Province) - Kerrojupukka
• Övertorneå (Norrbotten Province) - Pullinki
• Haparanda (Norrbotten Province) - Perra-vaara

• Enontekiö (Lapland Region) - Stuor-Oivi (currently Stuorrahanoaivi)
• Ylitornio (Lapland Region) - Avasaksa (currently Aavasaksa)
• Tornio (Lapland Region) - Torneå (currently Alatornion kirkko)
• Korpilahti (Central Finland Region) - Puolakka (currently Oravivuori)
• Lapinjärvi (Uusimaa Region) - Porlom II (currently Tornikallio)
• Pyhtää (Kymenlaakso Region) - Svartvira (currently Mustaviiri)

• Mäkipäällys / Hogland (Leningrad Oblast) - Mäki-päälys
Hogland / Hogland (Leningrad Oblast) - Hogland, Z

Võivere / Väike-Maarja Parish (Lääne-Viru County) - Woibifer
Simuna / Väike-Maarja Parish (Lääne-Viru County) - Katko
• Tartu Observatory / Tartu (Tartu County) - Dorpat

• Ērgļu novads (Vidzeme)  - Sestu-Kalns (Ziestu)
• Jēkabpils (Selonia) - Jacobstadt

• Panemunėlis (Panevėžys County) - Karischki (Gireišiai)
• Nemenčinė (Vilnius County) - Meschkanzi (Meškonys)
• Nemėžis (Vilnius County) - Beresnäki (Paliepiukai)

• Oshmyany district  - Tupischki (Tupishki)
• Zelva district - Lopati (Lopaty)
• Ivanovo district - Ossownitza (Ossovnitsa)
• Ivanovo district - Tchekutsk (Chekutsk)
• Ivanovo district  - Leskowitschi (Leskovichi)

Rudi (Soroca District) - Rudi

• Krupa (Volyn Oblast) - Krupi
• Antonivka (Khmelnytsky Oblast) - Katerinowka
• Hvardiiske (Khmelnytsky Oblast) - Felshtyn 
• Baranivka (Khmelnytsky Oblast) - Baranowka
• Nekrasivka (Odessa Oblast) - Staro-Nekrassowka

About the stamps
The first stamp, issued on March 29, 2012, is part of the large series Post Horn Definitive. The second stamps, depicting otter (Lutra lutra), designed by Sándor Stern and issued on August 25,2015, is part of the series Estonian Fauna, about which I wrote here. The last stamp is one of the two issued on April 14, 2015, as part of the large series Folk costumes, about which I wrote here.  

Struve Geodetic Arc - Wikipedia
Struve Geodetic Arc - UNESCO official website
Struve Column - Visit Estonia

Sender: Maili Tannbaum (direct swap)
Sent from Rakvere (Lääne-Viru / Estonia), on 23.11.2015

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